Primary Antibiotic Resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Different Regions of China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis


Aim: Understanding the prevalence of antibiotic resistance can provide reliable information for selecting treatment options. The goal of this meta-analysis was to observe the primary antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in different regions and time periods of China. Method: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical databases and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure from inception to 20 February 2022. Data on the prevalence of H. pylori primary resistance at various time points were included. A random-effect model was established to calculate the pooled antibiotic resistance. Results: In total, 2150 articles were searched, with 70 meeting the inclusion criteria. The resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin amoxicillin, tetracycline and furazolidone in 2016–2020 were 34% (95% CI: 30–39%), 78% (95% CI: 73–84%), 35% (95% CI: 30–40%), 3% (95% CI: 1–5%), 2% (95%CI: 1–4%) and 1% (95% CI: 0–4%), respectively. Clarithromycin showed regional difference, as the resistance was higher in northern (37%, 95% CI: 32–41%) and western China (35%, 95% CI: 17–54%) than that in southern (24%, 95% CI: 17–32%) and eastern China (24%, 95% CI: 20–28%). Conclusion: The resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin and metronidazole was high and increased over time, whereas resistance to levofloxacin, amoxicillin, tetracycline and furazolidone remained stable.

Published at Pathogens